Stem Cells: The Key to Reversing Biological Age

Using Yamanaka Factors to Reverse Epigenetic Noise and Regenerate Aged Tissues

Dr. Yamanaka giving a lecture at the Nobel Prize Inspiration Initiative

Stem Cells Are SUPER Important

To first explain what stem cells are (for those of you that don’t have much biology experience), we’re going to go back in time to when you were just a small mass of cells in your mother’s womb.

Embryonic Stem Cells

iPS Cells Breakthrough

The only problem was, these stem cells could only be obtained from embryos. Other stem cells in adult bodies were already somewhat specialized so that they could only transform into a few different types of cells. But there is obviously a huge ethical problem with obtaining stem cells from embryos.

A Colony of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPS Cells)

The Epigenome

Before we get into how Dr. Lu used iPS cells to reverse aging, we need a quick review of epigenetics.

Dr. David Sinclair, Author of Lifespan and Longevity Researcher at Harvard Medical School

The Epigenetic Correction System

Dr. Sinclair and other researchers in this field often compare the epigenetic information system in our bodies to the mathematically-developed information system proposed by Dr. Claude Shannon in the 1940s.

The correction system proposed by Dr. Shannon | Harvard Mathematics
Dr. Sinclair’s book Lifespan, which discusses the science behind aging, and ways that aging can be avoided or even reversed

Resetting the Epigenetic Age — Dr. Lu’s Research

To test the hypothesis, Dr. Lu and his team first introduced the expression of Oct3/4, Sox2, and Klf4 (collectively referred to as OSK) in fibroblasts from old mice. They then measured the effects of OSK treatment on the RNA levels of genes known to be altered by age. They found that OSK-treated old fibroblasts promoted youthful levels of these genes without loss of cellular identity. They also observed no induction of Nanog, an early embryonic transcription factor that can induce tumours.

The vitreous body consists of the gel-like vitreous humor between the lens and the retina
Regeneration of axons (stained orange/yellow) without (top) and with (bottom) OSK expression post-injury. Blue asterisks indicate optic nerve crush site

18 y/o innovator working on reversing ageing and researching cancer vaccines.